There are many causes of foot pain with approximately 20% of people suffering from some form of problem in their feet.
Pain in the foot may come on gradually over time or develop immediately due to a specific injury. It can be caused by a medical condition such as gout, as the result from repetitive trauma, incorrect footwear or from a specific injury.
Here you will find an overview of the most common causes of foot pain. They have been linked into groups: bone problems, soft tissue problems (muscles, ligaments and tendons), nerve problems, skin problems, medical conditions, foot syndromes and other rare causes of foot pain to make it easier for you to find what you are looking for. Click on the relevant links to find out more comprehensive information including the causes, symptoms and treatment options for each.
The foot is made up of twenty six bones divided into three sections, the forefoot, midfoot and hindfoot. If any of the bones sit slightly out of place, or parts of them grow abnormally or excessively, this can result in pain.
1) Bone Spurs: Bone spurs develop when the body lays down extra layers of bone. This is normally a protective mechanism in response to excessive friction on the bone. Bone spurs may develop due to muscle tightness, friction from footwear or from repetitive overuse activities. The most common locations for bone spurs are at the back of the heel e.g. Haglunds Deformity or underneath the heel (in response to plantar fasciitis). You can find out more about these causes of foot pain, the symptoms and treatment options in the bone spurs section.
2) Bunions: Bunions are most common around the big toe. Instead
of sitting straight, the big toe diverts inwards. The joint and surrounding structures can become inflamed.
They are most commonly the result of wearing tight fitting shoes with a
narrow toe box. Find out about these common causes of foot pain, symptoms and treatment options in the Bunions section.
3) Mallet, Claw & Hammer Toe: the toes consist or two or three bones which should sit in an aligned position. If one or more of the joints rests in a hyperflexed or hyperextended position, it can cause problems. Mallet Toe, Claw Toe and Hammer Toe are similar conditions but demonstrate slightly different toe joint positions. They can develop due to neurological or muscular problems, but are frequently caused by wearing ill-fitting shoes. Find out more about these causes of foot pain by clicking on the links above
4) Os Trigonum Syndrome: here, a small extra piece of bone behind the heel gets stuck in the ankle joint during plantarflexion, causing inflammation of the surrounding soft tissues. It tends to affect ballet dancers and athletes who do repetitive plantarflexion movements. Find out more about the causes, symptoms and treatment options in the Os Trigonum section.
5) Fractures: Bones in the feet
can break for a number of reason. Fractures can occur when the bones
are crushed by a heavy object or impact fractures can occur if you fall
from a height, landing on your feet. Another common cause of
fractures is repetitive overloading of the foot, usually when playing
sports resulting in a stress fracture.
If problems develop in the muscles, tendons or ligaments, it can cause pain and weakness, making daily activities difficult. Problems can develop from an injury, overuse, or may be related to a medical condition.
1) Sprained Ligament: The most common ligament injury in feet is an ankle sprain.
This is when the foot is suddenly forced into an abnormal position
which overstretches one of the ligaments. There are a number of
ligaments around the ankle which are extremely important in
providing stability for the lower limb.
The most common of causes of foot pain from an ankle sprain is from sudden inversion (foot turning inwards). There are three grades of ligament sprain, depending on how much of the ligament is damaged. Effective rehab is essential to prevent long term instability around the ankle. Visit the ankle sprain section to find out more.
2) Tendonitis is one of the most common causes of foot and ankle pain. It
occurs when one of the tendons (the structures that connect muscles to
bone) are damaged. This usually occurs either through repetitive
overuse or from over stretching. Small tears develop in the tendon
resulting in inflammation. If left untreated, the tendon can start to
degenerate, which is known as tendonosis. Tendonitis can occur in a number of locations around the foot including:
a) Achilles Tendonitis: occurs at the back of the heel. It can develop in a couple of different locations, at the teno-osseous junction where the tendon attaches to the heel bone or at the musculotendinous junction when the calf muscle meets the Achilles Tendon. It is one of the most common causes of foot pain at the back of the heel
b) Peroneal Tendonitis: occurs towards the back and outer side of the feet and is often worse first thing in the morning
c) Extensor Tendonitis: occurs over the top of the feet and causes pain when running
Find out more about these and other different types of tendonitis as causes of foot pain by clicking on the links above or visit the Tendonitis section.
3) Plantar Fasciitis:
whilst not technically a tendonitis, it is extremely similar, this time
affecting the thick band of tissue under the sole of your feet, the
plantar fascia. It can cause pain at the back of or underneath the
heel, worsening whenever you are on your tiptoes. It is one of the most
common causes of foot pain affecting one-in-ten people. Find out more in the Plantar Fasciitis section.
4) Cramp: Cramps are common causes of foot pain and calf pain. They are caused by strong, involuntary spasms in muscles and can be extremely painful. They are usually short-lived but can become frequent or even last for a few days. Whilst cramps are often no cause for concern, they can be a sign of an underlying condition. Find out more in the Cramps section.
5) Turf Toe: Turf toe is a sprain of the big toe caused by the big toe is bending back too far, usually from a sporting injury. Symptoms include pain, stiffness and inflammation around the big toe. Find out more in the Turf Toe section.
Problems in the nerves are common causes of foot pain. It may stem from an issue in the back placing pressure on the nerves which can result in referred pain and altered sensation down the leg. Or the problem may be more localised to the feet e.g. from compression or reduced blood supply.
Nerve problems are common causes of foot pain, weakness, altered sensation and decreased balance. In some instances, it can indicate a serious medical problem, so any incidence or nerve pain should be reviewed by your doctor. You can find out more in the nerve pain section.
Skin conditions are another of the common causes of foot pain, particularly around the toes.
1) Calluses: This is an area of hard, thickened skin that usually develop due to repetitive friction on an area. Calluses tend to occur on the sole of the feet, particularly around the toes, can cover quite a large area and tend to be painless.
2) Foot Corns: These tend to be smaller than calluses, circular in shape, yellowy/white in colour and can be quite painful. They penetrate deep into the skin and can lead to the formation of ulcers.
3) Athlete’s Foot: this is a fungal infection usually caused by poor hygiene. The skin becomes flaky and dry and the foot may itch. Good hygiene, going barefoot and anti-fungal medications are the best athlete’s foot cure. Find out more in the foot rash section.
4) Ingrown Toe Nail: If the edges of a toe nail push into the surrounding skin, it can cause swelling, redness and pain. They can develop for a number of reasons including wearing inappropriate footwear, an injury or from cutting nails incorrectly. Find out more in the Ingrown Toenail section.
Blisters are really common causes of foot pain. Small pockets of fluid
form under the skin in response to intense friction. They tend to be
filled with clear fluid, plasma, but can also contain blood and/or pus.
6) Trench Foot: Trench Foot is one of the less common causes of foot pain. It develops when the feet are exposed to prolonged cold and damp conditions. The feet turn a whitish/grey colour and feel cold, prickly, heavy and numb as the blood vessels constrict in an attempt to keep warm. Originally seen mainly in soldiers in the trenches, it is now a more common problem for builders, extreme-sports enthusiasts, at music festivals or even in people with excessively sweaty feet. Find out more about this cause of foot pain including which famous celebrities have suffered from it in the Trench Foot section.
There are a few medical conditions that are causes of foot pain.
1) Gout: Gout is one of the common causes of foot pain around the big toe but can also affect the ankle and the hands. It develops when the body has a problem breaking down uric acid. Symptoms of intense pain, swelling, redness, heat and tenderness often come on quickly over a few hours, usually starting at night. 60% of gout sufferers have recurrent episodes of gout. Find out more about the causes of foot pain from gout, how the condition affects the body and how to prevent attacks in the gout section.
2) Charcot Marie Tooth Disease: This is a group of inherited disorders due to gene mutation that causes weakness and sensory loss in the feet, legs and sometime hands. Symptoms usually start in childhood and get progressively worse over time. Find out more in the Charcot Marie Tooth section.
3) Arthritis: There are two types of arthritis that are common causes of foot pain:
a) Osteoarthritis: This is when there is “wear and tear” of the joints. The cartilage thins and the bone thickens resulting in rough surfaces rubbing on each other causing pain, inflammation and stiffness. It most commonly affects people over the age of 65
b) Rheumatoid Arthritis: This is a systemic inflammatory condition which can affect the body as a whole, joints, organs and skin. It causes inflammation around the joints and erosion of the joint surfaces. Joints tend to be swollen, red and painful, particularly first thing in the morning or after prolonged rest.
There are a few different syndromes that are causes of foot pain.
1) Sinus Tarsi Syndrome: The Sinus Tarsi is a small cavity on the outer part of the hindfoot, through which a number of structures such as nerves and blood vessels pass through.
Inflammation of the area, usually either due to instability following an ankle sprain, abnormal foot position or repetitive force through the area causes localised deep pain, stiffness and instability which gets worse with any weight bearing activity. This is one of the most frequently misdiagnosed causes of foot pain. You can find out more in the Sinus Tarsi Syndrome section
2) Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome: The tarsal tunnel sits on the inner side of the ankle and through it passes a number of structures including the tibial nerve. Anything which decreases the space in the tunnel e.g. swelling or cysts places pressure on the tibial nerve. This results in pain, pins and needles and numbness on in the inner side of the foot and heel which can spread into the calf. It tends to be worse at night.
3) Cuboid Syndrome: This is when the cuboid bone on the outer side of the midfoot gets displaced from its normal position, known as cuboid subluxation. It causes pain on the outer side of the foot making it difficult to walk. It may develop suddenly due to an injury such as an ankle sprain or come on gradually overtime from repetitive overuse.
4) Blue Toe Syndrome: This is a condition where the small blood vessels of the feet become blocked which reduces the flow of blood and oxygen to the tissues. The toes turn blue and if left untreated, the tissues begin to die. It is usually a sign of problems in one of the main blood vessels around the groin or abdomen.
There are a few other less common causes of foot pain:
1) Ganglions: these are small, usually pea-sized areas of swelling that can occur anywhere. They are caused by jelly-like fluid collecting in soft tissues and tend to be painless unless they are pressing on a nerve. They are harmless and usually resolve in time. Some people choose to have them removed, either surgically or having the fluid drained but there is a high recurrence rate in both.
2) Plantar Fibromatosis:
this presents similar to a ganglion with a small nodule in the middle
of the foot arch, usually on the inner side. It is caused by a benign
growth on the plantar fascia and can become extremely painful when you
are on your feet. You can find out more about the common causes of foot pain from this condition,
symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in the plantar fibromatosis section.
3) Tennis Toe: Also known as Runners
Toe, it is a condition where blood pools underneath the big toe nail,
due to repetitive pressure on the toe. It most commonly affects
athletes. Find out more about the causes, symptoms and treatment options in the Tennis Toe section.
4) Foot Rash: Rashes can also be causes of foot pain and itching. They can be due to a number of conditions including allergic reactions and eczema.
Skin irritation tends to be caused by
ill-fitting footwear, especially if you are on your feet for long
periods making shoes common causes of foot pain. Treatment options
include wearing appropriate footwear, good hygiene, using a pumice
stone and wearing toe stretchers. Find out more about these causes of foot pain by clicking on the links above.
If none of these common causes of foot pain is sounding quite like your problem, visit the foot pain diagnosis
section. There, we will help you work out what is causing your problem by looking at the location of your pain, what the symptoms are
and how they started.
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