Hammer, Claw and Mallet Toe are similar conditions, all caused by deformity of the toe joints.
They usually develop slowly from wearing poor fitting shoes, but can also be due to muscle or nerve damage.
Muscle imbalance causes the toes to bend into odd positions which can be extremely painful, limiting walking and activity.
Hammer and Mallet Toe are caused by a problem in one joint whereas in Claw Toe, all three joints are affected.
They become more common with aging and affect approximately 10-15% of the population. Women are five times more likely to suffer from hammer, claw or mallet toe than men. They may also lead to other problems such as corns or calluses and long term stiffness in the toes.
There are two joints in the big toe and three joints in the other four:
Muscles and tendons attach onto these bones and control the position and function of the toes.
If tightness or weakness develops in the tendons, most commonly extensor digitorum longus (EDL), flexor digitorum longus (FDL) or the intrinsics, the joints are pulled into the wrong position resulting in either Hammer, Claw or Mallet toe.
Let's look at how these three toe deformities differ from each other:
Hammertoe is caused when the middle joint (PIP) bends down towards the floor (flexion). To compensate, the joints above and below (MTP, DIP) bend up (hyperextend). The result is that the middle part of the toe lifts up.
Hammertoe is the most common deformity of the lesser toes i.e. not the big toe. It tends to only affect one toe, most commonly the second.
Mallet toe occurs when the joint at the end (DIP) flexes on a permanent basis. This prevents the toe from being able to straighten and causes the tip of the toe to point downwards.
Mallet toe most commonly occurs in the second toe.
Claw Toe occurs when the final two joints (DIP, PIP) flex to curl the toe downwards. To compensate, the first joint (MTP) hyper-extends so the toe bends up where it meets the foot.
Claw Toe often affects the four outer toes at the same time.
There are a number of things that can cause Hammer, Claw and Mallet Toe to develop:
Typical symptoms of Mallet, Claw and Hammertoe are:
In the early stages, the deformities from mallet toe, claw toe and hammertoe can be corrected. But if treatment is delayed too long, permanent stiffness can ensue which can only be corrected by surgery. The most effective treatment options for toe deformities are:
Exercises to strengthen and stretch the muscles can be really helpful for hammer, mallet and claw toe.
Simple things like trying to pick marbles up with your feet or scrunching up a towel underneath your foot can work well as they help to strengthen and stretch the foot. Visit the foot exercises section to find out more.
Anyone suffering from Claw, Hammer or Mallet Toe should see an orthotist or podiatrist. Inserts in your shoes can be used to help relieve pressure on the toes from the deformity, thus reducing toe pain and inflammation.
Footwear is key with toe deformities. Shoes with a wide toebox will be more comfortable and will reduce the tension on the muscles and friction on the toes.
Avoid high heels as they push your feet forwards to the front of the shoes. This increases the pressure on the toes, forcing them to bend more than usual. Shoes should ideally be half an inch longer than your longest toe.
These simple devices can be used to help re-align and stretch your toes and correct the muscle imbalance and tendon shortening. One of the most common types used are toe stretchers such as the yogatoe. They really can make a massive difference.
You can find out more about how they work and read user reviews in the Toe Stretchers section
Steroid injections can help to reduce pain and inflammation associated with mallet, claw and hammertoe.
In some cases, toe deformities from mallet, claw and hammertoe can get severe enough that surgery may be recommended.
The type of surgery required will depend on how limited the joint movement is. Surgery may be done on the tendons to length them or small fragments of bone may need to be removed to allow for relignment
A chiropodist can remove calluses or corns, areas of hard skin that have formed to make the foot more comfortable
There are a number of other conditions that can cause problems aside from hammer, claw and mallet toe - visit the toe pain section to find out more.
Alternatively if you want help working out what is wrong and what you can do about it, visit the foot pain diagnosis section.
Page Last Updated: 2019-06-17
Next Review Due: 2021-06-17